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Five Steps to Coaching Excellence: A New Approach to Personal Training

by Jeffrey Hodges B.Sc. M.Sc(Hons)

INTRODUCTION
Personal trainers are sometimes called on to work with elite sportspeople to provide personalised fitness and strength programs for improving their performance, but with a little more thought and preparation your PT business can offer much more to the elite sportsperson. Specifically, when you recognise that most sportspeople - even at the highest level - are only training half of themselves, it's easy to understand how you can offer a more complete, holistic training service.

What if you offered some assistance with mental and emotional preparation for your elite athletes, as well as the strength and aerobic fitness work? Athletes are not just bodies are they? Thoughts and feelings affect sports performances - even more so than physical factors, and how much do you know about training this half of your clients? But then, why would an experienced PT such as yourself bother with the extra training and effort involved in a more complete service to your clients?

Is extra money a good enough incentive? Recognise that elite level sportspeople spend millions of dollars a year worldwide on sports related services in an attempt to gain that competitive edge over their rivals - and this is on the increase. Further, elite level sportspeople - particularly in golf, tennis and football - earn enough to pay handsomely for your services, and are willing to do so on a long term basis. How often have you had clients for a few sessions, then never hear from them again?

How about the prestige associated with working with the best athletes in the world? Does that turn it on for you? The opportunity is currently here. There is a huge market of elite level sportspeople needing this more complete personal training service. I believe it is the next logical step in the evolution of PT.

Would working with clients who genuinely want to improve do it for you? Have you ever had the experience of 'backsliding' clients? Or clients who 'say' that they want to lose weight, or get fitter, but keep missing appointments, or who lose their motivation? Elite athletes are professional sportspeople - playing sport is their livelihood, their business, so they are more committed and motivated. They are a joy to work with - particularly if you're used to working a lot with 'average' 9 to 5'ers.

So have I excited you about a huge potential new client base, and a new way of working with your old client base yet? Stay with me, because the next question you're going to ask is "How can I do it?" Which is of course, the meat of this article - how to understand the unique needs of elite sportspeople, and how to develop your skills in five key areas of the new approach to Personal Training. How to deal with the Mind Matters of Personal Training.

A WINNING ATTITUDE
The first of these keys is to encourage a winning attitude in your clients. Now someone with a winning attitude is not someone who is merely obsessed with victory, but rather someone who has : a solution oriented focus; asks the right questions of themselves; and has powerful, positive self talk.

A solution oriented focus is all about looking for the answers, rather than focusing on the problems. You can encourage this in what you do with your clients, and how you communicate with them.
Rather than dwelling on 'problems', encourage them to consider solutions - how did they overcome a similar situation previously? What do they need to do to move forward?

Which leads into asking the right questions doesn't it? How often have you heard why(n)ing questions from your clients? Why can't I lose weight? What's wrong with me? Why am I so unfit? Why can't I get motivated?

The trouble with these kinds of questions is that even if you get the answer, you're still not left with a solution! This, of course, is the problem with traditional psychotherapy! Who cares where the 'problem' comes from - what your clients want is to know how to get out of it! So help them out by encouraging them to ask 'How' questions. How can I do such and such, and enjoy the process? How can I stay motivated? What can I do to achieve this step towards my goal? How can I stay on my healthy diet and exercise program?

Of course, this is supported by encouraging powerful, positive self talk in your clients. Of course you can do it! Stick with it! You'll make it! You deserve success. You've got what it takes. Perservere. Persist. All champions do.

POSITIVE MOTIVATION AND HIGH ACHIEVEMENT STRATEGIES
Goal setting is an obvious characteristic of elite sportspeople, and you've no doubt heard about goal setting ad nauseam! So I won't belabour the obvious here, but rather note a couple of things about goals of which you may not be aware.

Firstly, do you understand how and why goals work?

There is a part of the brain known as the RAS (reticular activating system) which, in simple terms, controls what we pay attention to. It does this unconsciously, based on what we have consciously decided is important to us.

For example, I recently decided to purchase a new car, and after a few weeks of looking around had decided on a particular brand and model. In the next few weeks prior to my purchasing the new vehicle, I saw that particular kind of car everywhere - whereas previously I had never even noticed them! I'm sure something similar has happened to you - either when choosing bricks or tiles for a new house, a new piece of business equipment, or whatever.

As soon as we consciously decide some particular thing is important to us, then our RAS filters the environment around us, unconsciously, and triggers our attention to items related to that particular thing. Without clear goals, this process cannot happen, and so the individual without goals doesn't notice the opportunities that someone with goals does automatically.

The other important thing about goals is that for someone to actively work towards a particular goal, they have to have a powerful enough reason. Particularly in elite level sport! Every athlete gets to a point in their training when they ask themselves "Why am I doing this?" If they don't have clear, unambiguous and powerful reasons to answer that question, then they will give up, and do something else.

So you can aid your clients be pre-asking this question, and having them list a number of clear reasons for you. Then, whenever their motivation is flagging, you can say: "Remember X? Remember what you're doing this for!"

Having clear, powerful reasons makes the difference between someone who is 'playing' sport, and a sports professional. Having powerful reasons makes the difference between someone who takes action on their goals and dreams, and someone who remains a dreamer.

BUILDING POSITIVE SELF CONCEPT
Self belief, in my opinion, is the single most essential characterising trait of the champion athlete. However, like motivation, concentration, a positive attitude, and so on, it's a learned behaviour - and one which you can help build in your clients.

Without doubt the biggest influence upon self belief and self confidence is the ability to cope with mistakes, failures, poor performances, and outright rejection in your life. Everyone can believe in themselves when things are going well! It's only when the chips are down and your back is to the wall that your underlying self belief is really tested, and either found wanting, or is strengthened by the adversity.

Obviously, positive self belief is closely linked to, and supported by, positive self talk. However, there is one key area that is often overlooked in building self belief, and that is one's attitude to errors, and there is an excellent strategy that I've developed which I call the ARIA technique which is extremely valuable that you can teach to your clients.

I'll explain this in detail in the article, together with the other two key areas : Emotional Management and Visualisation Techniques. [If you can't wait then please refer to my Sportsmind book, pages 33 - 35]

About Jeffrey Hodges B.Sc.(AES) M.Sc.(Hons)
Jeffrey Hodges is a performance consultant to elite athletes, sporting teams and corporate clients. He is the author of the widely acclaimed "Sportsmind - An Athlete's Guide to Superperformance Through Mental & Emotional Training" and "Champion Thoughts, Champion Feelings"; creator of the Sportsmind performance enhancement workshops and audio tapes; and Director of the Sportsmind Institute for Human Performance Research.

He is a NLP Master Practitioner and Associate Trainer, and his Sportsmind programs have been endorsed by the NSW Dept Sport & Recreation, and recommended by top sportsclubs and successful athletes. Jeffrey has competed in many sports, notably Volleyball, Squash, Soccer and Golf, and currently trains in Aikido, holding a black belt.

Some of his clients to date include :
Australian Rugby Union
St. Joseph's College
Woodlands Golf Club
Financial Institutions Remuneration Group (FIRG)
Societe Generale
Qld. Swimming
Network for Fitness Professionals
North Sydney and Penrith Rugby League Clubs
Qld. Athletics Assn
NSW Netball Assn
Northern Inland Academy of Sport
Victorian Soaring Assn
Orange Agricultural College Equestrian School
Qld and NSW Departments of Sport and Recreation
Qld Academy of Sport
and the RAAF.

For more information, contact :
SPORTSMIND , 77 FLAXTON MILL ROAD
FLAXTON Qld. Australia. 4560.
PHONE 61 7 5445 7994
email : jh@sportsmind.com.au
website : www.sportsmind.com.au

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Mind Matters for Sport Educators

by Jeffrey Hodges B.Sc.(AES) M.Sc.(Hons)

There is a difference between a truly positive attitude and just saying positive affirmations. This difference is having an understanding of the building blocks of behaviour, and the ability to encourage successful learning states in yourself and in the people you're teaching. The most useful and effective behavioural change model for educators comes from the field of Neuro-Linguistic Programming [NLP], and teachers and trainers who have a working knowledge of NLP are just that much more successful in their work.

Introduction
Most educators have a lot of knowledge and skill in the specific aspects of their chosen areas of expertise, and many also are up to date in their knowledge of teaching and learning theory and practice, however an important aspect of education that is often not recognised is that, particularly in sport education, successful learning often involves behavioural change.

Whether you're working with an elite athlete or sports team preparing for an important competition performance; providing a new routine for a referee; or implementing a new administrative system; the most successful coaches and sport educators are not those who have an intuitive understanding of human behaviour and behavioural change techniques.

Behavioural Change is 90% Mental
It's often said that you can lead a horse to water, but you can't make it drink. Likewise, it seems like you can provide your people with the most researched and effective approach, but you can't make them follow it. Or can you?

Some people suggest that successful behavioural change is 90% mental, yet few educators - in sport or elsewhere - understand the psychological basics of personal motivation, and positive behavioural change. Understanding the psychological processes of successful behavioural change - and how to initiate it your people - is of significant benefit to educators, because those who don't usually experience resistance to change that can take the form of unmotivation to deliberate sabotage or open hostility. Education courses devote very little time to this important area, and even traditional 'psychology' courses offer few practical tools and techniques for educators.

Neuro-Linguistic Programming - What is it?
The field of Neuro-Linguistic Programming, or NLP, offers a huge range of very powerful and easily-applied techniques and educational approaches that encourage positive behavioural change in both individuals and teams.
NLP is a powerful human performance and behavioural change technology based on modelling excellence - identifying the motivation and thinking strategies of highly successful people, and providing practical tools for teaching these to others. NLP has demonstrated success in the areas of management, education, and counselling, and new SPORTS-NLP applications have recently been designed for sports performance and coaching contexts. SPORTS-NLP techniques provide verifiable, sensory based descriptions of an individual's subjective experience, and practical tools and specific techniques for improving motivation, persistence and performance.
Building Blocks of SPORTS-NLP
There are three core building blocks of NLP that are of significant use in sports education and training : VAK Strategies; Preferred Learning Style; and Anchoring Techniques.

VAK Strategies
One of the main concepts underlying NLP is that all human behaviours - including motivation, desire, decision making, concentration, creativity, and so on - are a result of sequences of 'thoughts'. All thoughts are represented in terms of one of the five senses, with the primary building blocks of thinking being the Visual (V), Auditory (A), and Kinaesthetic (K) senses. So every behaviour can generally be described as a sequence of Visual, Auditory, and Kinaesthetic steps - and this is called a mental processing strategy.

For example, a very simple motivation strategy might be :

Visual (Picture my goal) --- Auditory (Tell myself to go for it) --- Kinaesthetic (Feel good about it) --- Do it!

We all have specific strategies for motivation; for learning; for decision making; for creativity; for belief; and for memory. Some strategies are much more effective than others, and being able to identify an individual's strategies - and change them if they are ineffective - can greatly assist you in helping them achieve their learning outcomes.

There are important criteria in such behavioural strategies which identify whether or not a particular strategy is 'well formed'. Strategies which adhere to these criteria are more effective in securing a successful outcome - be it in making a good decision; learning a new skill; motivating yourself to do a task; or whatever. For example, it's easy to recognise that obtaining information from all our senses would be important - you can see things you can't hear, you can feel things you can't see, and you can hear things you can't feel. Consequently it would make sense to include all sensory systems in one's strategies. However, it is clearly observable that not everyone does this - some people make decisions just on how they 'feel' (kinaesthetic) about something; others attempt to learn by simple rote repetition (auditory); or attempt to motivate themselves without any clear images of the desired outcome. (visual).

Preferred Learning Style
Most educators are probably familiar by now with the concept of visual, auditory, and kinaesthetic learners. [This information - though rarely credited by most people who refer to it - came from the work of NLP researchers Richard Bandler and John Grinder] Some people learn best if they can see the information, if they can map it out in their mind and have a clear image of what is to be learned. Others prefer to learn through listening to talks and lectures, by discussing salient point and debating different opinions. Still others learn best through doing, by jumping in and having a go and working through things a step at a time until they have a handle on it.

Of course, most people can learn in all of the above ways - however, most of us tend to have a preference for one or other of the visual, auditory or kinaesthetic presentation styles. Interestingly, an individuals preferred learning style is very easy to identify - simply pay attention to the kinds of words they use.

For instance someone who is very visually oriented will often use words or phrases such as : "I see what you mean"; "I'm not clear on that"; "Let's look at this from another perspective"; "From my point of view"; etc. Someone who is very auditorily oriented will often use words or phrases such as : "I hear what you're saying"; "I think such and such"; "You're not listening to me"; "Let's talk about this"; "Sounds good to me"; etc. Someone who is very kinaesthetically oriented will often use words or phrases such as : "I don't grasp what you mean"; "I'm not comfortable that, it just doesn't feel right to me"; "Let's just do it and work from there"; "I want to move forward a step at a time"; "That sits well with me"; etc.

The consequences to educators of such sensory preference are profound: if you're just communicating in one way, you may not be reaching two-thirds of your audience!

Anchoring Techniques
Anchoring is another name for the sophisticated stimulus-response conditioning techniques used in NLP. Anchoring techniques can be used by an educator, covertly or overtly, to disrupt negative emotional states and to lock in positive resource states in students. Self anchoring techniques can also taught to your people, to encourage positive states in training, competition performance, and other areas where you want them to experience powerful, positive emotional states and feel more confident and 'in control'.

Anchors can be established in any of the five sensory systems, with the most commonly used in teaching being visual and auditory anchors. You, yourself, can in fact become a positive visual anchor for your people - just seeing you can help shift them into a positive learning state !

SPORTS-NLP Training
For sport educators and coaches wanting to obtain training in SPORTS-NLP, the Sportsmind Institute for Human Performance Research offers a programs of study in SPORTS-NLP varying from one to three weeks. Courses can also be undertaken by correspondence, and have been accredited with the Australian Fitness Accreditation Council for Continuing Education Credit (CEC) points.

About Jeffrey Hodges B.Sc.(AES) M.Sc.(Hons)
Jeffrey Hodges is a performance consultant to elite athletes, sporting teams and corporate clients. He is the author of the widely acclaimed "Sportsmind - An Athlete's Guide to Superperformance Through Mental & Emotional Training" and "Champion Thoughts, Champion Feelings"; creator of the Sportsmind performance enhancement workshops and audio tapes; and Director of the Sportsmind Institute for Human Performance Research.

He is a NLP Master Practitioner and Associate Trainer, and his Sportsmind programs have been endorsed by the NSW Dept Sport & Recreation, and recommended by top sportsclubs and successful athletes. Jeffrey has competed in many sports, notably Volleyball, Squash, Soccer and Golf, and currently trains in Aikido, holding a black belt.

Some of his clients to date include :
Australian Rugby Union
St. Joseph's College
Woodlands Golf Club
Financial Institutions Remuneration Group (FIRG)
Societe Generale
Qld. Swimming
Network for Fitness Professionals
North Sydney and Penrith Rugby League Clubs
Qld. Athletics Assn
NSW Netball Assn
Northern Inland Academy of Sport
Victorian Soaring Assn
Orange Agricultural College Equestrian School
Qld and NSW Departments of Sport and Recreation
Qld Academy of Sport
and the RAAF.

For more information, contact :
SPORTSMIND , 77 FLAXTON MILL ROAD
FLAXTON Qld. Australia. 4560.
PHONE 61 7 5445 7994
email : jh@sportsmind.com.au
website : www.sportsmind.com.au

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From PT to PC: The Future of Personal Training

by Jeffrey Hodges B.Sc. M.Sc(Hons)

Introduction
What might the Personal Training industry be like in five years time? Ten or twenty years from now what will PT's be doing with their clients? Who will be their clients in an aging community? What are the trends of client needs at the moment? What populations are not being serviced at present that could be tapped as new markets for your services? What innovations and new approaches are you going to implement in your business over the next year? What things are working for you and your clients, that you want to remember to do again next week? What are you going to study or do to further your own development as a PT over the next couple of years? Where will your business be in the future?

These questions are important because those personal trainers who are open to the changing needs of their clients, and who innovate and provide leadership in the industry will be among the most successful and the most respected.

Do pause for a few minutes and find your answers to these questions right now.

Predicting the Future
Obviously crystal ball gazing is an uncertain science, however it might be useful to reflect on previous trends in the industry as one way of predicting the future.

Reflect for a moment on the history of personal training. In it's current form it has a short history, but we could say that most people would agree that physical fitness training has its origins in the military and martial arts going back for thousands of years. We all have memories of watching old war movies with cadets going through boot camp being harangued by the drill sergeant, and seeing them do exercise drills including the star jumps, push ups, sit ups, and so on of what was called callisthenics.

Those old enough will also remember early school days with the PE teacher doing straight leg sit-ups, burpees, and other exercises in the thirty minutes per week allocated to 'Physical Education'. The 1970's saw the widespread acceptance of a new form of exercising choreographed to music : Jazzercise and Aerobics. This quickly developed more professionalism with graduates from Human Movement Studies courses bringing their expertise to gymnasiums, (previously restricted to huge, tough, tattooed men), and businessmen looking for a quick buck. Remember those early exercise chains where we all got started in the industry, but the owners of which were really only after the money?

While the collapse of that bubble hurt the industry in the eighties, it resulted in more integrity both in business terms and in providing more professional and widespread services for a greater range of clients: aerobics classes graded for fitness level and intensity of exercise, low impact workouts, aqua-aerobics, circuit classes, step classes, and so on. Gymnasiums had now become 'fitness centres', and their clientele often included more women than men - particularly in the aerobics room. There also developed the concept of the personal fitness assessment and gym exercise program. After the initial assessment clients were taken through their program under the supervision of a qualified gym instructor for a few times and then usually left to their own devices with a review of their program every three to six months.
Then someone (don't ask me to name the first person to coin the term 'Personal Trainer') thought to offer a more consistent supervised program of exercise for clients outside of the normal gym setting: the client's home, outdoors, etc.

Most recently, innovations have included group exercises using weights ('Pump', etc), Swiss or Fit balls, choreographed routines derived from boxing or other martial arts ('Boxercise', etc), and Yoga like stretching, breathing and relaxation classes ('Mind-Body').

Thus far it appears that the trend in innovation has been for a greater variety of types of physical exercises, and for more training accessories and 'gimmicks' such as stretch bands, step boxes, barbells, fit balls, etc. etc.

So what will the next innovations be?

To my mind there are limits as to how much further such variations in physical activity and gimmickry can go, and they really don't address the core issue anyway - that of exercise adherence and behavioural change. In addition, if we were to be honest with ourselves such accessories really have little to do with keeping fit and healthy, but are used to maintain interest by adding variety to exercise programs.

In my opinion, the true innovations of the future are not going to be just further variations of the variety or 'exercise gimmick' concept - though of course these will continue to appear and provide current 'fads' in the industry. Rather, for the serious Personal Trainer, innovation will come from an expansion of personal education and training - particularly in the area of the psychology of motivation, exercise adherence and behavioural change.

Exercise Adherence and Behavioural Change.
Consider for a moment the real reason clients use your personal training services.

There are really only two types of clients:
1. The person who wants to stay trim or lose weight, and feel better about their physical body.
or
2. The committed sportsperson who wants to get fitter, stronger and more flexible to enhance their athletic performance.

The second type of client is usually very committed and highly self motivated, and needs your expertise primarily for tailoring an exercise program to suit the specific muscle strength and flexibility that will lead to the best performance in a given sport - be it golf, tennis, rugby, or whatever - and hence each client's needs differ depending on their specific sport. These client's usually number a smaller portion of most personal trainer's clientele.

Consider then the first type of client - those people who come as basically unfit or overweight individuals wanting to trim up, lose weight and feel good about themselves. These people form the majority of PT clients, and who in my opinion need your help the most. But what specifically are they looking for help with?

The answer is motivation and behavioural change.

These clients don't have the self motivation to exercise, or the self discipline to change poor eating patterns or other limiting behaviours - otherwise they would already be doing it! They look to the personal trainer to help motivate them and to help them change the patterns of behaviour which will lead them to becoming the 'new' person they want to be.

Clients come to you to change themselves - and personal change is all about changing behaviour. So how much do you know about behavioural change? How much of your professional studies was devoted to understanding human behaviour and personal change?

Whether you're working with an elite athlete or sports team preparing for an important competition performance; providing a fitness regimen for a busy executive; or designing a weight loss program for a special client; the most successful personal trainers are not those with the latest exercise routines or diets, but rather the people who have an intuitive understanding of or professional training in behavioural change techniques - and how to initiate and maintain personal change in clients.

Almost all of the issues clients present with concern either the person wanting to change a limiting or inappropriate behaviour (eg. lose weight, stop smoking, get fitter, etc), or change a negative feeling state of some kind (eg. have more energy, be more confident, control pre-performance anxiety, etc). So understanding the psychological processes of successful behavioural change - and how to initiate it your clients - is essential to personal trainers.

Yet the fact is that current courses in Personal Training devote very little time to understanding these key issues. PT's are expert in the physiological basics of fitness and health - yet successful behavioural change is 90% mental, so PT's also want to understand the psychological basics of exercise adherence, motivation and personal change. The most effective and powerful behavioural change technology available is known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming - or NLP. Professional training in NLP can provide personal trainers with so much more to offer their clients.

So the significant innovations in personal training in the future will come from educating PTs about behavioural change, and providing them with specific tools and techniques with which to support their clients in personal change.

Once more PTs master NLP behavioural change techniques - and it is already beginning - the title 'Personal Trainer' will rightly change to Personal Coach. So we will progress from PT to PC. A personal coach provides much more for a client than just an exercise routine or a healthy diet: they support their clients to become happier, healthier and more successful people. You can't do that if you limit your education to exercise physiology and nutrition, so get out there and learn about behavioural change - learn about NLP!

About Jeffrey Hodges B.Sc.(AES) M.Sc.(Hons)
Jeffrey Hodges is a performance consultant to elite athletes, sporting teams and corporate clients. He is the author of the widely acclaimed "Sportsmind - An Athlete's Guide to Superperformance Through Mental & Emotional Training" and "Champion Thoughts, Champion Feelings"; creator of the Sportsmind performance enhancement workshops and audio tapes; and Director of the Sportsmind Institute for Human Performance Research.

He is a NLP Master Practitioner and Associate Trainer, and his Sportsmind programs have been endorsed by the NSW Dept Sport & Recreation, and recommended by top sportsclubs and successful athletes. Jeffrey has competed in many sports, notably Volleyball, Squash, Soccer and Golf, and currently trains in Aikido, holding a black belt.

Some of his clients to date include :
Australian Rugby Union
St. Joseph's College
Woodlands Golf Club
Financial Institutions Remuneration Group (FIRG)
Societe Generale
Qld. Swimming
Network for Fitness Professionals
North Sydney and Penrith Rugby League Clubs
Qld. Athletics Assn
NSW Netball Assn
Northern Inland Academy of Sport
Victorian Soaring Assn
Orange Agricultural College Equestrian School
Qld and NSW Departments of Sport and Recreation
Qld Academy of Sport
and the RAAF.

For more information, contact :
SPORTSMIND , 77 FLAXTON MILL ROAD
FLAXTON Qld. Australia. 4560.
PHONE 61 7 5445 7994
email : jh@sportsmind.com.au
website : www.sportsmind.com.au

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Mastering the Mind Games: SUCCESS Counselling Skills for Personal Trainers

by Jeffrey Hodges B.Sc. M.Sc(Hons)

Psychological and emotional issues outside of the professional expertise of Personal Trainers may arise as the personal relationship with your client develops. How are these often difficult issues best dealt with? Where do we draw the line between PT and Counsellor? This article provides a six step S.U.C.C.E.S. strategy for keeping you and your clients 'on track', and some simple 'self preservation' skills for PT's.

Introduction
It's natural to build a close friendship with your clients as your professional personal training relationship grows over time. As with all friendships however, sometimes the other person asks for your opinion or advice about an issue outside of their fitness or lifestyle program, or is in serious need of help to resolve an issue of mental anguish or emotional distress to themselves.

For the most part, such calls for help will be of a relatively 'light' nature, and the person is really just looking for a sounding board rather than seriously asking for your suggestions for action. However, there will be those times when the person would benefit from some gentle personal guidance, or referral to a suitably qualified therapist for serious issues of distress. How can personal trainers, who are certainly not expert in psychological counselling, to approach this situation - both ethically, and practically?

Four Guiding Principles
One could say that the best approach is to leave well enough alone, and simply explain that you're not 'qualified' to offer counselling advice. However, the problem often becomes identifying the rather blurred distinction between the person just 'having a chat' about a problem at work or in a relationship, and a genuine overture for assistance. The person themselves may not even be aware that the issue is a 'problem' for them - and will often deny that it is - so how can a personal trainer judge effectively?

There is also a reluctance by some people to seek professional 'therapy' because it can be misconstrued as being 'weak' or somehow psychologically disturbed, and so even if the personal trainer correctly identifies an important emotional issue and suggests referral to a professional, the client is as likely as not to do nothing about it - even if it is suggested.

Further, one of the issues that makes personal training so effective and beneficial for clients, is the fact that the personal trainer is someone, hopefully, that the client can admire and look up to; someone who is not just taking them through an exercise routine or designing a diet for them, but rather a mentor - someone they can really aspire to be like. It is difficult in such a mentor role then to deny a request for help, particularly when one is being paid by the client, and their continued custom is contingent upon the level of friendship and trust you've established with them. Friendship and trust are established by sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings, and the personal trainer who keeps aloof and seemingly uncaring of their client's day to day issues may soon lose business.

Therefore, I suggest the following four guiding principles for personal trainers as providing both an ethically acceptable and practical procedure for dealing with potential counselling situations in personal training. [ An even better option is to undertake further professional training - there are some excellent short counselling, psychology, and sport psychology courses currently available - and it would add an extra string to your bow wouldn't it? Whichever one you choose, do ensure it includes some basic Neuro-Linguistic Programming [NLP] techniques, as without doubt NLP offers the most effective and practical counselling and personal development tools]

They are:
1. Establish Personal Boundaries
2. Exhibit a COMMAND PRESENCE
3. Identify and Refer Serious Issues
4. Stay on Track - Using the S.U.C.C.E.S Model

Lets consider each of these in turn, and discuss how you can put them into practice to enhance your reputation as a professional personal trainer of the highest standard.
1. Establish Personal Boundaries
In order to be of most effective help - both from a personal training and 'counselling' point of view - it's important that your relationship to your client is not clouded by your own emotional entanglements. You're not going to be as effective if you end up having an emotional or sexual relationship with your clients, and you will soon get a reputation and lose credibility.

Keep your relationship professional by clearly establishing personal boundaries and a conduct of behaviour that clearly signals to the client what is and is not acceptable - for both you and your client. This includes simple things avoiding physical contact, and if required, (for example, in assisting with or demonstrating a particular exercise or stretch), asking for permission to touch them before doing so; politely asserting, immediately, that any touching of yourself by them is unacceptable in a professional personal training relationship; saving 'flirting' for outside of work times; and so on. Needless to say, the above suggestions are doubly important when dealing with married clients!

Of course, you may choose to become involved in a relationship with a client - however, ensure it is by considered choice rather impulse reaction, and if you do, you'd be better off deleting them from your client list, and seeing them in a non-professional capacity.

In the long run, professional trainers who keep their relationship with clients strictly professional earn the respect of both clients and colleagues, and can provide that 'neutral' emotional perspective that is so necessary to truly offer counselling assistance if required.

2. Exhibit a COMMAND PRESENCE
Command presence is such a sense of complete confidence in what you're doing, that your clients are literally dragged along by the force of your own personality and willpower. I'm sure you've seen it in great speakers, teachers, actors and public figures - something about them affects the people around them.

You can deliberately cultivate this in yourself as a personal trainer by making yourself someone worthy of respect. Set high standards for yourself, and demonstrate these standards in your own behaviour. Walk, speak, and act like a mentor - because that's precisely what you are to your clients.

When you do this, often the specific 'techniques' or 'approaches' you use are really irrelevant - what makes them work is the simple presence of you.

3. Identify and Refer Serious Issues
It's important to be alert for signs of more serious problems which may require referral to a qualified professional. These can be broken down into two simple categories: high energy and low energy problems.

High energy problems may indicate overstress and include symptoms such as insomnia or sleeping too much; poor appetite or overeating; confusion; circular thinking; and an inability to relax. Low energy problems may indicate depression and even suicidal tendencies and include symptoms such as low energy and lack of motivation; apathetic attitude towards life/work/family; and accident prone.

A helpful idea is to have a list of professionals and services to refer your clients to, and this might include : masseuse; GP; naturopath/homoeopath; domestic violence unit; chiropractor; drug and alcohol unit; and psychotherapist.

4. Stay on Track - Using the S.U.C.C.E.S. Model
Another way to ensure you maintain a truly professional approach with your clients is to stay on track. Even if there is no temptation of emotional entanglements, still many personal trainers lose clients simply because they either haven't identified precisely what the client wants initially, or the larger goal gets forgotten in the day to day training routines over time. Problems occur for people because they either 'don't know' what they really want, or they haven't taken the time to flesh out their desired outcome thoroughly enough.

Identifying, describing and committing to a desired goal is half the battle - and it's far easier to maintain interest and motivation when a client has a clear picture of where they are going, and demonstrable progress steps along the way.

The following SUCCESS model provides an easy to use, and very effective way of clarifying a client's, (or your own), desired goals, and is especially useful for working with elite level performance. The process is just as powerful whether you're dealing with other behavioural issues (such as wanting to give up smoking, be more relaxed in public speaking, cope more satisfactorily with change at work, etc), as it is with fitness or weight loss/gain goals.

I use it in my work with elite athletes, sports teams and corporate training. It is the first step I take in working with my clients, and I find it to be the single most powerful tool in achieving peak performance.

The model comes from the human technology of Neuro-Linguistic Programming [NLP], and you can recognise that while this outline provides a useful introduction, mastery of its use also requires some professional training in NLP - in particular, meta-model questioning skills. The model is modified from McClendon & Associates NLP Practitioner Training Course, and I highly recommend their NLP training and certification courses as among the very best available.

To clearly see and get a feeling for how you can use this with your clients, I suggest you go through the SUCCESS model with a desired goal of your own right now, and explain it to yourself in your own mind as you go through each step.

So, what do you want to achieve for yourself in the next year or so? Pick something you'd like to change, do, learn, or have.

Here are the steps:

S. STATED POSITIVELY. I want to .....
The first step is to elicit a precise, positively stated desired outcome.
What is important here is to ensure that the goal is phrased in positive terms - ie. what they want, not what they want to avoid, or don't want. For instance, someone stating a goal such as: 'I don't want to feel tired all the time', or 'I don't want to smoke or overeat any more', or 'I want to not get nervous before important matches', will want to rephrase them to be something like: 'I want to feel alive and energetic', or 'I want to eat healthily and be a non-smoker', or 'I want to remain calm and confident before important matches'.

Clarity and precision is also important, and goals such as 'I want to get fitter', or 'I want to lose weight', or 'I want to play better golf', or 'I want to be a better speaker', and so on require further clarification, to: 'I want to be fit enough to easily complete the Gold Coast half marathon next year', or 'I want to maintain an athletic, trim build and weight of 75kg', or 'I want to reduce my golf handicap from 18 to 10', and 'I want to prepare and rehearse my talks well, remain calm and confident, speak clearly, and hold eye contact with my audience.'

U. UNDENIABLE REALITY : I know this to be true when ..... (sensory-based description)
The next step is to identify how the person will know when they have achieved their goal, emphasising a sensory-based description of this knowledge.

While this might at first seem obvious, it becomes a little more challenging when dealing with desired emotional states or behaviours. Consequently, it becomes necessary to identify in sensory specific terms, precisely what the person will see, hear and feel when they will have achieved their goal. A simple example for achieving a desired weight goal might be: 'I see the bathroom scales reading 75kg when I step onto them; I feel light and energetic; and I hear my friends and work colleagues telling me how great I'm looking'.

An example of a desired change to your telephone manner might be: 'I hear myself using a helpful, polite tone to the customer; I picture myself providing a standard of service and helpfulness that meets and then exceeds their expectations and I imagine them smiling and content; and I feel relaxed and confident, knowing I can help the customer and the satisfaction of being truly helpful and service oriented.'

This is a really important step, because you will identify the specific behaviours you want in either yourself or your client in order to achieve success.

Too often in desired change situations the emphasis is placed on the outcome, rather than the means by which you will achieve the outcome - and it's the process that provides the specific information and direction for you or your staff to follow.

C. CONTEXTS : The places and times I want this are .....
The next step is to identify in what specific situations and contexts the person wants to experience the behaviour/feeling.

It's important to recognise that even positive emotional states like confidence and relaxed, might not be appropriate in all circumstances - for instance, would you want to feel confident and relaxed walking alone late at night in a dark alley in a known criminal area? A more useful feeling state might be cautious alertness wouldn't it?

By doing the process with several specific situations your client will then generalise the behaviours to other areas by themselves.

Note, it's quite common for a person to also identify contexts that are related to work or other personal areas in addition to those that specifically relate to their fitness or sports goals. Some simple examples relating to positive eating habits might be: 'when I open the fridge', or 'when I feel bored', or 'when I eat out at restaurants with my friends', or 'when I'm visiting my parents'.

C. CONGRUENT WITH PERSONAL VALUES : I want this because .....
The next step is to ensure that the desired outcome is in line with their personal values and higher level goals.

Sometimes, a person can want something that either goes against another strongly held value, or they may want it for a self destructive reason - for instance, someone wanting to follow a strict dietary regimen 'to punish myself'.
Asking for what purpose the desired outcome is, can ensure you help the person work toward constructive goals and those that are in harmony with their important values and beliefs.

An example from someone who is aiming for a higher sports performance might be: 'I want to achieve more and do it with ease to give me a feeling of satisfaction and contentment and self worth'. An example from someone wanting to improve their telephone manner might be : 'I want it because it will help me advance in my career, and increase my volume of telephone sales.'

E. ECOLOGICAL : Does any part of me object to being/doing/having this?
This step is to check that the desired change is in harmony with all 'parts' of your client.

This leads on from the issue of values outlined in the previous step, and is a simple check to ensure that there is no inner resistance from the client to the desired change. This is important, as one of the main reasons for 'backsliding' in effecting positive behavioural change, is that if there is a 'part' of the person that didn't really want to change, then it may sabotage the process.

It is more common than not to have some objections - and this makes sense when you think about it. If the person whole heartedly wanted to be that way, they already would be in the first place! They are the way they are now, precisely because the way they are now is doing something of a perceived positive nature for them.

So when you come across objections, the trick is to identify the positive intention behind the objection, and find at least three other more useful way of achieving that same intention. For example, a common objection to giving up smoking is that smoking currently gives the person a way of feeling relaxed and at ease, so in designing a positive change for such a client, you would want to teach them three or four other ways of feeling relaxed and at ease. Likewise, a common positive intention for being overweight is that it gives the person a sense of protection or solidity, and so in your personal training you would want to teach them three or four other ways of feeling safe and solid.

It is recommended that at least three other behaviours are provided for the person to allow them a range of choice in selecting how they want to behave in a given context.

S. SELF INITIATED AND MAINTAINED : How can I take charge of doing this myself?
The final step is to ensure that your client can initiate and maintain the desired change themselves.

The most effective work is done with clients who eventually don't need you isn't it? This ability of a personal trainer to train so well that your clients no longer need you is an indicator of the very best trainers - because you empower others to positively and successfully take charge of their own lives.

The most effective, positive changes occur when the responsibility for that change comes from within the individual themselves, rather than being imposed from outside. So establishing self control of the new behaviours in your clients is essential to the S.U.C.C.E.S. process.

An example for an elite athlete might be: 'Develop a pre-performance mental routine. Control negative self talk in stress situations. Use posture, movements and emotional triggers to generate positive states prior to big matches'.

Likewise, an example for someone who wants to control over anxiety in public speaking might be : 'Develop a pre-performance mental routine of visualising and thinking about the desired positive outcome. Stop negative self talk, and use a confident posture, movements and emotional triggers to generate positive states prior to the presentations'.

Another helpful hint is to establish the old behaviour as the trigger for beginning the new one! So the feeling of desire for a cigarette now becomes a trigger to engage in some deep breaths or a quick walk to relax and let go of stress; the feeling of nervousness and unconfidence before dealing with an angry staff member or customer now becomes the trigger for active listening to their grievance, building positive rapport and feeling confident about finding a positive solution.

S.U.C.C.E.S ACHIEVEMENT / CHANGE MODEL

S = STATED POSITIVELY : I want to .....
Example : feel confident and relaxed; be determined and aggressive; to produce my best; to be positive, at ease and looking forward to it; sleep well the night before; etc.

U = UNDENIABLE REALITY : I know this to be true when ..... (sensory description)
Example : Feeling .... I feel taller; relaxed around my shoulders with even breathing; I experience a sense of strength throughout my whole body; I move in a way that shows I mean business and am on a mission; there is a warmth over my whole body; and face relaxed.
Seeing .... I clearly see everything around me; and I picture myself doing what I'd like to do successfully. The pictures are in front of me about 5 - 6 meters away, bigger than life and in dynamic lifelike colour, bright and with movement and action.
Hearing .... I hear all the sounds around me, and experience internal silence.

C = CONTEXTS : The places and times I want this are .....
Example : # Before major tennis events - state or national titles.
# When I have to play someone I don't know.
# If I'm given a new task and deadline by the boss.
# When I'm around my older sister or her associates.

C = CONGRUENT WITH PERSONAL VALUES : I want this because .....
Example : - I want to achieve more and do it with ease to give me a feeling of satisfaction and contentment and self worth.

E = ECOLOGICAL : Does any part of me object to being/doing/having this?

S = SELF INITIATED : How can I take charge of doing this myself?
Example : Develop a pre-performance mental routine. Control negative self talk in stress situations. Use posture, movements and emotional triggers to generate positive states prior to big matches.

About Jeffrey Hodges B.Sc.(AES) M.Sc.(Hons)
Jeffrey Hodges is a performance consultant to elite athletes, sporting teams and corporate clients. He is the author of the widely acclaimed "Sportsmind - An Athlete's Guide to Superperformance Through Mental & Emotional Training" and "Champion Thoughts, Champion Feelings"; creator of the Sportsmind performance enhancement workshops and audio tapes; and Director of the Sportsmind Institute for Human Performance Research.

He is a NLP Master Practitioner and Associate Trainer, and his Sportsmind programs have been endorsed by the NSW Dept Sport & Recreation, and recommended by top sportsclubs and successful athletes. Jeffrey has competed in many sports, notably Volleyball, Squash, Soccer and Golf, and currently trains in Aikido, holding a black belt.

Some of his clients to date include :
Australian Rugby Union
St. Joseph's College
Woodlands Golf Club
Financial Institutions Remuneration Group (FIRG)
Societe Generale
Qld. Swimming
Network for Fitness Professionals
North Sydney and Penrith Rugby League Clubs
Qld. Athletics Assn
NSW Netball Assn
Northern Inland Academy of Sport
Victorian Soaring Assn
Orange Agricultural College Equestrian School
Qld and NSW Departments of Sport and Recreation
Qld Academy of Sport
and the RAAF.

For more information, contact :
SPORTSMIND , 77 FLAXTON MILL ROAD
FLAXTON Qld. Australia. 4560.
PHONE 61 7 5445 7994
email : jh@sportsmind.com.au
website : www.sportsmind.com.au

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Positive Sportsmanship

By Jeffrey Hodges B.Sc. M.Sc.(Hons) B.Ed.

1. CHAMPIONS IN YOUR LIFE
Identify someone who was / is a good sportsperson and who you respect. It may be a team mate, a coach, a friend - but pick someone who you personally know and are familiar with. Describe their personal qualities and character. What was it about the behaviour and performance of this person that inspired, motivated and influenced you?

What personal changes and achievements did you accomplish under the influence of this person?

2. THE POWER OF INTENTION & THE MEANING OF WINNING
"A while ago we were playing a game of 'Stuck in the Mud' with the juniors at the Dojo. I noticed that if the children were left to play the game they quickly organised around the principle of trying to stay free themselves. Following this principle they were all quite quickly tagged by the chasers. I asked them to change their method and focus only on freeing others who had been tagged. Using this principle the majority stayed free permanently. Since that time I have repeated this experiment always with the same result. I believe there is a very important lesson in this principle and that it relates to the manner in which outcomes can change under no greater influence than a difference in INTENTION. This warrants considerable thought."
David Dangerfield, 3rd Dan Black Belt of the Aikido Institute.

"Success is the peace of mind that is a direct result of self-satisfaction in knowing you did your best to become the best that you are capable of becoming. Furthermore only one person can ultimately judge the level of your success - you."
John Wooden, famous basketball coach.

"It's great to win, but its also great fun just to be in the thick of any truly well and hard-fought contest against opponents you respect, whatever the outcome."
Jack Nicklaus, winner 4 US Opens, 3 British Opens and a record 6 Masters titles.

"Even when I went to the playground, I never picked the best players. I picked guys with less talent, but who were willing to work hard, who had the desire to be great."
Earvin "Magic" Johnson, NBA player

"If you can react the same way to winning and losing, that's a big accomplishment. That quality is important because it stays with you the rest of your life, and there's going to be a life after tennis that's a lot longer than your tennis life."
Chris Evert, champion tennis player.

It's interesting to note that Chris Evert's winning percentage .8996, (ie she won nearly 9 out of every 10 matches she played against the best in the world), is the highest in the history of professional tennis. Yet she says that it's important to see winning and losing in the same way. It's interesting to recognise that probably the greatest golfer ever, and the greatest woman tennis player of all time - both have a broader intent when they play. That winning for them is not just about winning the game. Read the biographies or some of the quotes from any of the greatest sports champions of any generation, and you will find that they actually see their sport in a much broader way than just 'winning'. I believe when you hold a broader intent - then you win more anyway - and because of that attitude, you also win even if you lose the match! Many of the problems we see in sport today - performance enhancing drugs, gambling corruption, excessive violence, eating disorders, and so on are a result of a having just a narrow, winning intention, rather than a broader appreciation that sees sport as personal development.

Copyright J. Hodges 2000. For more coaching resources and handouts call 07 5445 7994

Having read the previous quotes, what do you think? What does 'winning' mean to you? How do you define success? Relate your answers to the first question on champions in your life.

MY VISION OF SPORTSMANSHIP
This exercise is designed to give you a chance to imagine a personal, positive vision of sportsmanship for your team - whether you are a player, coach or parent - and to identify specific behaviours that you can do to encourage positive sportsmanship in the team.

A vision is an ideal, an inspiration towards which we want to strive because it matches our values and beliefs. Without a vision, individuals, teams, and even nations begin the slide into mediocrity and apathy. However a vision that is too general, and that is not grounded in clearly achievable behaviours remains an unreachable dream. Ensure you think of specific behaviours that characterise and support your vision.

1. Describe your vision of the relationship between coach and players, and between members of the team.

2. Describe how you would like individuals and the team as a whole to respond to defeats.

3. Describe how you would like individuals and the team as a whole to respond to victories.

4. Describe your vision of the relationship between players, coaches and officials.

5. Describe your vision of the role of parents and supporters.

Copyright J. Hodges 2000. For more coaching resources and handouts call 07 5445 7994

About Jeffrey Hodges B.Sc.(AES) M.Sc.(Hons)
Jeffrey Hodges is a performance consultant to elite athletes, sporting teams and corporate clients. He is the author of the widely acclaimed "Sportsmind - An Athlete's Guide to Superperformance Through Mental & Emotional Training" and "Champion Thoughts, Champion Feelings"; creator of the Sportsmind performance enhancement workshops and audio tapes; and Director of the Sportsmind Institute for Human Performance Research.

He is a NLP Master Practitioner and Associate Trainer, and his Sportsmind programs have been endorsed by the NSW Dept Sport & Recreation, and recommended by top sportsclubs and successful athletes. Jeffrey has competed in many sports, notably Volleyball, Squash, Soccer and Golf, and currently trains in Aikido, holding a black belt.

Some of his clients to date include :
Australian Rugby Union
St. Joseph's College
Woodlands Golf Club
Financial Institutions Remuneration Group (FIRG)
Societe Generale
Qld. Swimming
Network for Fitness Professionals
North Sydney and Penrith Rugby League Clubs
Qld. Athletics Assn
NSW Netball Assn
Northern Inland Academy of Sport
Victorian Soaring Assn
Orange Agricultural College Equestrian School
Qld and NSW Departments of Sport and Recreation
Qld Academy of Sport
and the RAAF.

For more information, contact :
SPORTSMIND , 77 FLAXTON MILL ROAD
FLAXTON Qld. Australia. 4560.
PHONE 61 7 5445 7994
email : jh@sportsmind.com.au
website : www.sportsmind.com.au

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What Clients Like About Sportsmind & Jeffrey Hodges

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